Curriculum, E-learning, Educational Program, Face-to-face or In-person Classes, Higher Education, Leadership, Management, Online learning


There are different opinions existing about the leadership crisis relating to the quality of education (Muenjohn, Pimpa, Montague, & Qin, 2016). Several authors believe that the role of contemporary business in HE plays a significant role in resolving the leadership crisis (Muenjohn, Pimpa, Montague, & Qin, 2016; Bettinger & Loeb, 2017; Grincewicz, 2017). The focus of HE in this field also presents significant challenges to those who are responsible for developing the leadership curriculum in the HE context (Muenjohn, Pimpa, Montague, & Qin, 2016). Literature shows that business schools have long struggled with the problem of teaching leadership and developing suitable curricula to help graduates become skilled leaders, primarily through online programs (Muenjohn, Pimpa, Montague, & Qin, 2016). Moreover, with the coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) crisis, the online platform has proven to be an effective education delivery tool, but COVID-19 has challenged education for learners of all ages (Hoofman & Secord, 2021). Relatively little research has explored the way students’ performance in non-profit institutions is influenced by participating in an online course versus face-to-face course. As a result of research completed on this topic, it is evident more in-depth information is needed regarding evidence to understand the impact of online learning versus face-to-face learning today and their effect on students’ performance. The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare the way students’ performance in non-profit institutions is influenced by participating in an online course versus face-to-face course. The Online and Face-to-face Education Evaluation Tool (OFFEET), developed by this researcher, was chosen as the measurement instrument for this study. Participants of this study were university students at non-profit universities/colleges, for this study, there were 314 participants. One-way multivariate ANOVAs were computed with scores on the researcher-developed instrument, OFFEET and the independent variables (i.e., two covariates (gender and age), household income, type of device used, and region within the United States. The results of this research determined that there is a statistically significant difference in the relationship between online versus face-to-face student performance in nonprofit universities.

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