International business, business models, business school, management education


      The development of business models in the 21st century is significant to socio-economic development. Higher Education is seen as a fertile ground for developing business models. Business schools’ activities dominate the higher education landscape, particularly through their MBA degree programs. This fact has challenged many to question the direct contributions of business schools to social and economic development.  Business schools all over the world do face several problems, many of which are the result of offering a value scheme that mainly emphasizes on career-enhancement and higher salaries. This deviate from the aspects of business education as contrasted with the idea of organizational management as a profession. The methodology of the present study is based on a critical literature review of existing research on the emergence of business models and their contribution to socio-economic development. Business school education is also reviewed to bring to light its contribution to the development of business models that are relevant to the growth of international business. The key conclusion is that although business schools and business models have failed to address the needs of contemporary business dynamics, however, both can play an important role on leadership, management and business development if the context of programs and curricula be re-examined and improved.


Full Text : PDF

  1. Afuah, A. and C. Tucci (2003), Internet Business Models and Strategies, Boston: McGraw Hill.
  2. Antonacopoulou, E. (2010), Making the Business School More ‘Critical’: Reflexive Critique Based on Phronesis as a Foundation for Impact, British Journal of Management, Vol. 21, Pp., 6–25 Armitage, A. (2012), Book review: Business Schools and their Contribution to Society,
  3. Management Learning, Vol., 43, Pp., 355-370
  4. Bennis, W and O’Toole, J. (2005),How Business Schools Lost Their Way, Harvard Business Review, Pp., 1-10
  5. Bowen H. R., (1953), Social Responsibility of the Businessman, New York, Harper & Row Carroll A.B. (1979), A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate social performance,
  6. Academy of Management Review, Vol., 4, No., 4, Pp., 497-505
  7. Casadesus-Masanell, R. and EnricRicart, J. (2010), From Strategy to Business models and onto tactics, Long Range Planning, Vol., 43, Pp., 195-215
  8. Christopher and Rowan, C (2013), Interdisciplinary business education: curriculum through collaboration, Emrald Group, Vol., 55, No., 4/5, Pp., 385-402
  9. Cotton, D., Bailey, U., Warren, M. and Bissell, S. (2009) ‘Revolutions and second-best solutions: education for sustainable development in higher education’, Studies in Higher Education, Vol., 34, No., 7, Pp., 719–733.
  10. Crossan,M., Mazutis, D., Gerard S. and Gandz, J. (2013), Developing Leadership Character in Business Program, Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol., 12, No., 2, Pp., 285-305
  11. Currie, G., Knights, D. And Starkey, K. (2010), Introduction: A Post-crisis Critical Reflection on Business Schools, British Journal of Management, Vol. 21, Pp., 1–5
  12. Davenport T. H., Prusak L and Wilson H. J. (2003), what’s the big idea? Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press
  13. 86    A Journal of the Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM)
  14. International Journal of Higher Education Management (IJHEM), Vol. 4 Number 1    August 2017
  15. Donalson T. and Preston, L.E. (1995), The stakeholder theory of the corporation: concepts, evidence and implications, Academy of Management Review, Vol., 20, No., 1, Pp., 65-91
  16. Ferlie, E. E., McGivern, G. and De Moraes, A. (2010), Developing a Public Interest School of Management, British Journal of Management, Vol. 21, 60–70
  17. Ford, J., Harding, N. and Learmonth, M. (2010), Who is it That Would Make Business Schools More Critical? Critical Reflections on Critical Management Studies, British Journal of Management, Vol. 21, 71–81
  18. Frederick W. C, (1960), the growing concern of business responsibility, California Management Review, Vol., 2, No., 4, Pp., 54-61
  19. Freeman R. E. and Evans W. (1990), Corporate governance: a stakeholder interpretation, Journal of Behavioural Economics, Vol., 19, No., 4, Pp., 337-360
  20. Gordijn, J. (2002), Value-based Requirements Engineering - Exploring Innovative eCommerce Ideas, Doctoral Dissertation, Amsterdam, NL, VrijeUniversiteit
  21. Grey C. (2001), Re-imagining relevance: a response to Starkey and Madam, British Journal of Management, Vol, 12, Pp., 27-32
  22. Husted B.W. and Salazar, J. D. J (2006), Taking Friedman seriously: maximising profits and social performance, Journal of Management Studies, Vol., 43, No., 1, Pp., 75-91
  23. Junyent, M. and Ciurana, A.M.G (2008), ‘Education for sustainability in university studies: a model for reorienting the curriculum’, British Educational Research Journal, Vol., 34, No., 6, Pp., 763–782
  24. Linder, J. and S. Cantrell (2000), Changing Business Models: Surveying the Landscape" accenture Institute for Strategic Change
  25. Lourenço, F. (2013), To challenge the world view or to flow with it? Teaching sustainable development in business schools, Business Ethics: A European Review, Vol., 22 No., 3, Pp., 292-307
  26. Lorenzi, P. (2012), Business Schools: Capitalism’s Last Stand, Society, Symposium; The Fortunes of Capitalism
  27. Morris, M., Schindehutte, M. and Allen, J. (2005), The entrepreneur’s business model: towards a unified perspective, Journal of Business Research, Vol., 58, Pp., 726-735
  28. Mitroff I. (2004), An open letter to the deans and faculties of American Business schools, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol., 54, No., 2, Pp., 185-189
  29. Osterwalder, A. and Pigneur, Y. (2003), Towards Strategy and Information Systems Alignment through Business Model Ontology, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Strategic Management Society
  30. Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., and Tucci, L. C. (2005), Clarifying Business Models: Origins, Present, and Future of the Concept, Communication of the Association for Information Systems, Vol., 15, Pp.,1-40
  31. Petrovic, O., C. Kittl, et al. (2001), Developing Business Models for e-Business, Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Commerce
  32. Pfeffer, J., & Fong, C. (2002), The end of business schools? Less successful that meets the eye. Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol., 1, No., 1 Pp., 78–95
  33. 87    A Journal of the Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM)
  34. International Journal of Higher Education Management (IJHEM), Vol. 4 Number 1    August 2017
  35. Pfeffer, J. and Fong, C. (2004), The Business School ‘Business’: Some Lessons from the US Experience, Journal of Management Studies Vol., 4, No., 8, Pp., 1501-1520
  36. Shafer, M. S., Smith, H .J. and Linder, J. C. (2005), The power of business models, Business Horizons, Vol., 48, Pp., 199-207
  37. Slater D. J and Dixon-Fowler H. R (2010), The Future of the planet in the hands of MBAs : an examination of CEO MBA education and Corporate environmental performance, Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol., 9, No., 3, Pp., 429-441
  38. Starik, M., Rands, G., Marcus, A.A. and Clark, T.S. (2010), ‘In search of sustainability in management education’, Academy of Management Learning & Education, Vol. 9, No., 3, Pp. 377–383
  39. Starkey, K. and Madan P. (2001), Bridging the relevance gap: aligning stakeholders in the future of management research, British Journal of Management, Vol., 12, Pp., 3-26
  40. Stephanie D. and Thomas ,D. (2013), Strategies for business school in a multi-polar world, Emrald Group, Vol., 55, No., 4/5, Pp., 323-335
  41. Teece, D. (2000), Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation, Lon Range Planning, Vol., 43 Pp., 172-194